Of all birds hummingbirds are one of the most fun to watch. They are fast, colorful, and tiny, the smallest ones roughly the same size as a large moth or butterfly. They are probably best known for their maneuverability.
These birds are compact and extremely well muscled. Their tails are short and flexible, notice how the tail of the Anna’s Hummingbird in the above photo is curved to the side and folded to cup the air to assist in guiding the bird in to its landing spot. Their wings are short with thick muscles covering the limbs and have a range of motion far greater than that of other birds.
The name Hummingbird comes from the noise of their wings beating at 25 beats per second, about 1500 beats per minute. This high wing-beat and the extraordinary wing flexibility allows hummingbirds to hover far more effectively and energy efficiently than any other bird.
To hover they flap their wings in a figure-8 pattern, generating lift on both the down and upstroke. Approximately 75% of the life of generated on the down-stroke with the remainder on the up-stroke. The University of Texas has some nice graphs and charts providing more detailed information on how this works.
In to achieve this maneuverability hummingbirds give up the ability to glide. In effect they have no low energy flight, they are always running at near full speed. A 170 pound person would need to eat (and metabolize) 130 pounds of bread a day to keep up with energy output of a hummingbird. Their energy output is so great that they enter torpor at night, a sort of hibernation. If they did not do this the hummingbird would starve to death during the night.
Hummingbird flight characteristics are very nearly a blend of bird and insect methods of achieving lift.
Hummingbirds are generally extremely colorful, especially the males. Like many birds this color is not pigment generated, but is the result of highly specialized feathers light refracting feathers. Think of oil on water, that rainbow sheen that you see when light reflects from it. Birds use the same technique, but in a far more specialized way. Rather than an undifferentiated rainbow of colors the micro-structure of the feathers refracts only specific colors. The natural color of the feathers is a dark brown, almost black.
I know I’ve used this photo before, but it illustrates the refraction vs pigment issue well. The bold purple-pink behind the bird’s eyes is the color we associate with the male Anna’s Hummingbird’s head and gorget (the throat portion). The dark, almost black, feathers are at the wrong angle to reflect the light and show the natural dark color of their pigment.
The tree in these photos is a Tobacco Tree (Nicotiana glauca), not native to North America, but native to South America, a place where there is a stunning variety of hummingbirds. This tree and hummingbirds have a long relationship and have mutually evolved to reinforce that relationship. Hummingbirds and may other birds and insects (and not a few mammals and reptiles as it turns out) drink nectar from flowers. Not everyone who drinks the nectar will pollinate the plant, thus special relationships evolve. Plants with long tube-like flowers (penstemon, humming-bird sage, tobacco, monkey flowers, heliconia, etc) are specialized to provide nectar for animals with long tongues that can reach the nectar.
Hummingbirds not only have long, narrow beaks, they have long, feathery tongues with which to lap up nectar hidden deep inside the tube-like flowers. As they drink the plant deposits pollen on the beak and sometimes the bird’s head (two photos up you can see the pollen discoloring the hummingbird’s beak). The next flower the bird visits gets a little pollen from the previous flower and the plant is happy.
A quick look at the shape and color of flowers will often give you a good sense of what type of animal the plant relies on for pollination.
Hummingbirds need protein as well. Some, such as the Anna’s Hummingbird, catch insects in flight, many others raid spiderwebs for insects. Here in North America this is a relatively safe prospect, but in parts of South America there are spiders that will happily catch and eat a hummingbird and spin webs more than strong enough to trap the birds.
Hummingbirds have such a need for vast quantities of high energy foods that they are often extremely territorial, engaging in vicious fights and high speed chases. Like most animals they would rather warn opponents off than waste energy fighting them. Different species have various methods of letting others know how tough they are.
The little fellow above is marking out territory by fluffing out his head feathers.
One of the most amazing things about hummingbirds to me is that they migrate long distance, some species crossing the Gulf of Mexico in one long flight with no food. At the shortest distance this is a flight of 480 miles, many birds fly closer to 600 miles to make this open water trip. For a bird that only weights several ounces, cannot glide, and needs to eat constantly this is a truly remarkable voyage.
On a final note, hummingbirds are far more intelligent than most people realize. Their memories are phenomenal, allowing them to keep track of individual flowers within their territories and when they were last visited for nectar. They have the largest brain-to-body size of any bird.