I have always loved things made of stone, especially ancient constructions. The stone-masonry I have done has only increased my respect for the strength, vision, and talent of past masons.
Most of my stone projects have been small in scale. The largest project was a 180 foot long retaining wall standing between 2 and 6 feet high, using 30 or 40 tons of stone. That seems large when you’re doing it by yourself, but that’s a tiny project, barely larger than the little garden wall in the photo above.
In Peru there were some truly astounding pieces of megalithic engineering, many of them little known like Lanche and Kuelap, others well known like Saqsaywaman.
Two days ago I went to the small Spanish city of Segovia and got to see several astounding pieces of stone-based architecture. The first of these is the ancient Roman aqueduct.
The aqueduct runs about 15 km from the mountains into Segovia, with a 683 meter long raised section running through town. The tall double arch of granite blocks is impressive enough by modern standards, even more so when you consider that it was built in the 1st or 2nd century, that the granite had to be carried in from the mountains, and that it is a dry-laid structure (no morter holding the blocks together) that has been standing for 1800 or 1900 years. Clearly, this is a place with few earthquakes.
Granite is a favorite building material for many people. It is an igneous rock that bubbles up in volcanic flows and cools in place. The size of the crystals in the rock give an estimation of how long it took for the rock to cool and how much water there was in the melt. The colors tell of the mineral content. This granite is pale, with moderately large crystals weathering out, leaving the exposed stone extremely rough to the touch.
Due to the way it forms granite has no preferential cleavage plane, meaning that, given the right tools, it is easy to shape into whatever form is needed. It is a dense and strong rock as well, another reason it is often used as a foundational material.
The blocks of stone making up the aqueduct are large, not enormous, but large, hundreds of pounds each. At its highest point the aqueduct is 29 meters tall (that’s about as tall as a 4 or 5 story building). Nearly 2 thousand years ago those blocks had to be hoisted up and set in place. Clues as to how the Romans did so are carved into the blocks.
Each block was lifted into place with a pair of metal pincers, like those people used to carry ice-blocks with. Divots were carved into the stone to prevent the pincers from losing their grip. Presumably the divots were carved at the balance point of the block as well, a calculation I would be very curious to know how was done.
Supposedly Segovia was a “small outpost” when the Romans ran things in the area, though the effort and cost of building the aqueduct makes me question that assessment. Small outpost or no, very little happened in the area for a long while, then in the 1200s the town began to grow and with that growth came the buildings that Europe is so well known for.
Castles and Cathedrals. Segovia has impressive examples of both, the castle being the inspiration for Walt Disney’s version of Sleeping Beauty, and the cathedral being on the of the last of built of the great Gothic cathedrals.
Construction of the cathedral began in the 1500s, but took more than a century to complete. The massive building looms over the city, glowing golden in the sunlight.
The first thing that struck me was neither the size nor the the tremendous amount of fine detail. It was the color. A warm, yellow/orange, not the color one associates with Gothic architecture, or with goths in general. The castle, cathedral, and much of the rest of Segovia is made from this stone, not from the granite the aqueduct is made from.
The town of Segovia rests upon an outcrop of calcareous sandstone (sandstone with the grains cemented together by calcium rather than silica) and the land around rises and falls, exposing the bedrock in numerous small cliffs. Sandstone is a sedimentary rock, a class of rock at the opposite end of the formation spectrum as granites and other igneous rocks.
Sandstone tends to have horizontal cleavage planes, refection the initial depositional patterns, and is often soft and easy to carve. The sandstone in Segovia seems made for carving and the cathedral builders took full advantage of this.
Sandstone weathers and erodes easily, especially in the presence of water. Segovia, despite being a dry region by my standards (about a half meter of rain per year) is considered a wet place in comparison with nearby areas. As such the builders took pains to protect the soft sandstone, making their waterspout gargoyles of the more resistant granite.
Statues of sandstone have not weathered as well as those of granite.
The the level of fine detail in the cathedral architecture is reflected elsewhere in the town. The older buildings and the castle are covered with patterned façades. In the past these patterns seem to have indicated which family owned the building and in a few cases older patterns could be seen under the more recent ones.
The castle, the Alcázar de Segovia, has a more simple pattern, but each intersection is studded with fragments of volcanic rock.
Like many European castles the one at Segovia has gone through a number of iterations; fort, castle, palace, prison, artillery college, and museum. It still serves the latter two roles.
The castle commands a wonderful view of the countryside in all directions. One of the most magnificent views is of the cathedral:
In the opposite direction an old Templar keep and the sandstone cliffs much of the stone was quarried from to make the city are visible.
This has been a less science based post than most, but the trip to Segovia was far too interesting to keep all to myself.
The castle, aqueduct, and cathedral are the largest of the attractions, but not the only ones by far. The food is delicious, mockingbirds flit about the city, interesting small plants grow from the old walls and on the red tile roofs, and great architecture abounds.