(this is an article I wrote for the summer 2012 newsletter of A2A – Algonquin To Adirondacks Conservation Association – a bi-national conservation association I am an adviser for – I wanted to wait until it was included in the newsletter before posting it here as well)
Between the Algonquin and the St. Lawrence a finger of the Canadian Shield, called the Frontenac Arch, reaches down from the north. The Canadian Shield is an ancient formation of rock, heavily weathered, marked with meteor craters, and bearing the polishing scars of the ebb and flow of glaciers miles deep. Soils are shallow on the Shield, in many places nonexistent. Nutrients are hard to come by and wetlands abound.
The bedrock to the east and west of the Frontenac Arch is old seafloor with thicker soils that are rich in minerals and nutrients. Groundwater flows through breaks in the flat bedding planes and does not become trapped in pockets as easily as it does on the Canadian Shield.
When we look at a landscape we often look at the plants growing on the surface and leave our thoughts on the surface with them. Plants grow where they do because of the chemistry of bedrock, soil, water, and temperature.
On the Frontenac Arch the chemistry of the northern and the southern Canadian forests mix. This mix shows in the wide and unusual range of plants growing in and around the Frontenac Arch. The diversity of plants attracts a corresponding diversity in animals. All these plant communities are separated and connected by the dense wetlands, and many animals are drawn to the wetlands. Frogs, fish, ospreys, turtles, feeding moose, waterfowl of all sorts, beavers, blackbirds, otters, sparrows, loons, and many more.
Healthy wetlands are rich in species, both in number and diversity; plant, animal, insect, and bird. Wetlands are the kidneys of the planet; they filter water and keep it clean. They slowly recharge aquifers with cool, pure water, they keep rivers and streams clear, they trap sediment, and they eventually fill in, becoming rich, complex soils full of nutrients.
Oddly, perhaps counter intuitively, all this life, more specifically all this diversity, of living things in wetlands is what keeps the water clean. The water is strained at a molecular level for nutrients by all those living organisms. Each looks for different things and uses them differently. Toxins and chemicals are swept up and broken down by this process, but only as long as the diversity of life is present.
When that fabric of diversity is broken the health of the land suffers. A healthy environment is like good glass, so clear you don’t see it and tough enough to withstand storms.
The Frontenac Arch is one of the gems of the region and is critical in connecting the northern and southern forests.
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For those who are interested the Algonquin to Adirondacks Conservation Association website is here, and a map is below: