The Frontenac Arch a Critical Linkage

(this is an article I wrote for the summer 2012 newsletter of A2A – Algonquin To Adirondacks Conservation Association – a bi-national conservation association I am an adviser for – I wanted to wait until it was included in the newsletter before posting it here as well)

Between the Algonquin and the St. Lawrence a finger of the Canadian Shield, called the Frontenac Arch, reaches down from the north.  The Canadian Shield is an ancient formation of rock, heavily weathered, marked with meteor craters, and bearing the polishing scars of the ebb and flow of glaciers miles deep. Soils are shallow on the Shield, in many places nonexistent.  Nutrients are hard to come by and wetlands abound.

Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus)

The bedrock to the east and west of the Frontenac Arch is old seafloor with thicker soils that are rich in minerals and nutrients. Groundwater flows through breaks in the flat bedding planes and does not become trapped in pockets as easily as it does on the Canadian Shield.

When we look at a landscape we often look at the plants growing on the surface and leave our thoughts on the surface with them.  Plants grow where they do because of the chemistry of bedrock, soil, water, and temperature.

On the Frontenac Arch the chemistry of the northern and the southern Canadian forests mix.  This mix shows in the wide and unusual range of plants growing in and around the Frontenac Arch.  The diversity of plants attracts a corresponding diversity in animals. All these plant communities are separated and connected by the dense wetlands, and many animals are drawn to the wetlands.  Frogs, fish, ospreys, turtles, feeding moose, waterfowl of all sorts, beavers, blackbirds, otters, sparrows, loons, and many more.

Male Painted Turtle (Chrysemys picta)

Healthy wetlands are rich in species, both in number and diversity; plant, animal, insect, and bird.  Wetlands are the kidneys of the planet; they filter water and keep it clean.  They slowly recharge aquifers with cool, pure water, they keep rivers and streams clear, they trap sediment, and they eventually fill in, becoming rich, complex soils full of nutrients.

Oddly, perhaps counter intuitively, all this life, more specifically all this diversity, of living things in wetlands is what keeps the water clean.  The water is strained at a molecular level for nutrients by all those living organisms.  Each looks for different things and uses them differently.  Toxins and chemicals are swept up and broken down by this process, but only as long as the diversity of life is present.

When that fabric of diversity is broken the health of the land suffers.  A healthy environment is like good glass, so clear you don’t see it and tough enough to withstand storms.

A large male Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpentina) and feral biologists

The Frontenac Arch is one of the gems of the region and is critical in connecting the northern and southern forests.

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For those who are interested the Algonquin to Adirondacks Conservation Association website is here, and a map is below:

Algonquin to Adirondacks Conservation Association map of the Frontenac Arch

The Jaws that Bite…

A little while ago I was invited to participate in a wildlife conference in Ontario, Canada (as opposed to the Ontario, California where Mag-Lights are manufactured).  The conference took place on a geologic feature called the Frontenac Arch, a narrow finger of the Canadian Shield that reaches south past Ottawa to the St. Lawrence, separating the calcium rich sedimentary rock formations of south eastern Canada into two portions.

The land here is flat scoured by billions (yes, billions) of years of weathering, and is littered with with numerous lakes, bogs, and marshes that pool on the surface in the wake of the most recent glaciation.  These wetlands are home to a wide variety of animal life, a reptilian subset of which was studied by one of the conference attendees.  He was conducting turtle surveys, looking for stinkpot, or musk, turtles specifically, but interested in all the rest as well.

In one of the wetlands he pointed out two large snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) and, to our surprise, reached in and pulled one out so we could see it better.

25 pound male snapping turtle

Assuring us, over our skepticism, that the snapping turtle wouldn’t bite while it was in the water this bold fellow picked up the large male turtle and held it for us to see.

Snapping Turtles are the largest of the freshwater turtles north of Mexico and range from east of the Rockies though southern Canada and down to Florida.  In the wild they live up to 30 or 40 years and eat pretty much whatever they can fit in their mouths, plant or animal.  Their scientific name, Chelydra serpentina, roughly translates into “serpent like turtle”.

Unlike many turtles, snappers cannot fully withdraw their heads unto their shell.  Instead they have evolved long, flexible necks and sharp, powerful jaws with which they both feed and discourage other curious animals.

An upset snapping turtle

Getting bitten by a snapping turtle would be an extremely unpleasant experience, but contrary to popular belief, they are unlikely to be able to sever fingers or toes.  That being said, having been bitten by other animals with beaks, I am not going to volunteer to be bitten by any turtle, let alone a snapping turtle.

Like other predators, snapping turtles are blamed for much more damage to wildlife than they are actually responsible for.  The public misunderstanding of their impact on duck and fish populations results in little support for conservation efforts aimed at snappers.  On the whole this is not a problem, their numbers are good and the IUCN considers them a species of least concern, and in many areas they are caught for soups and such.

Like other turtles, snapping turtles are extremely sensitive to habitat disturbance.  Indeed turtles in general are good indicator species for assessing wetland habitat conditions, and snapping turtle eggs have been used as indicators of environmental contaminate levels.

Snapping turtles will travel great distances overland while dispersing, searching for a wetland that matches their needs.  It is common to find them crossing roads in the spring and summer.  If you do encounter one crossing the road and desire to move it to a safer place, great care must be taken, both for your own safety and for the safety of the turtle. The best place to pick one up from is the rear of the plastron, the lower portion of the shell (see how the turtle is being held in the first photo).  Grabbing from anywhere else can result in injury to both you and the turtle.

When snappers are young they are tiny, extremely cute, and subject to predation from a wide variety of other animals ranging from birds to raccoons and fish.

Baby snapping turtle, shell about 2 inches long

Snapping turtles have been around for a long time without changing much.  Modern snapping turtles are about 40 million years old, but their ancestors looked much like the modern ones and have been around for 215 million years.  That is nearly a quarter billion years.  Pretty much everything that has ever lived is a passing fad to the snapping turtles.

Admire them, show some respect, and keep your fingers clear.